||Isaac Anderson is known for providing the most complete account of Lochry's ill-fated expedition against the Ohio Indians of 1781 from a daily diary he kept of the expedition and its aftermath. Anderson's entry in Pioneer Biography contains a narrative of the expedition (highlighted below) and a transcript of his diary, which is now held by the Cincinnati History Library. A more complete account of Lochry's Expedition including the testimony of other participants is available here. |
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Isaac Anderson was long and favorably known in Butler county, Ohio, having been a resident of the county and state more than forty years. His life was an eventful one, and if written by an able hand would be interesting and instructive. He was born in the county Donegal, in the north of Ireland, September 15, 1758, and was the youngest of thirteen children. When about twelve years old both his parents died within a short time of each other, and there being no legal guardian appointed for him, he was left pretty much to his own control, and in after life was often heard to say, that until he arrived at near the age of fourteen he was a self-willed and very rude boy. At that time, however, he resolved to reform, and at once became industrious and steady. He took to studying, and in two years acquired some proficiency in mathematics and made himself master of the art of surveying. He then, at the age of sixteen, determined to seek his fortune in America, at that time a colony of Great Britain. Accordingly he sailed from Donegal and landed at Philadelphia in the early part of the year 1774. During the passage he kept up
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his mathematical studies by learning navigation under the tuition of the captain.
Several of his brothers and sisters had come to America some years previous, and settled in Virginia, where great numbers of their descendants are yet residing. Young Isaac did not choose to seek for them, preferring to rely upon his own exertions. Accordingly he stopped in Pennsylvania until the spring or summer of the year 1776, when, the war with Great Britain having commenced, he shouldered his knapsack and rifle and tendered his services to the country of his adoption. He was soon enrolled in Colonel Morgan's rifle regiment, and from that time was an active intrepid soldier of the Revolution to the end of the war.
General Schuyler, who had the command of the American army belonging to the Northern department, was superseded by General Gates on the 19th of August, 1777. The day after General Gates assumed the command, Colonel Morgan arrived with his corps, five hundred strong, to which were presently added two hundred and fifty picked men under Major Dearborn. This made the American array about six thousand strong, besides detached parties of militia under General Lincoln, which hung on the British rear. The first, or nearly first effective service in which Mr. Anderson was engaged, with the newly organized corps of Colonel Morgan, was at the battle of Bemis Heights, between the American army under the command of General
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Gates and the British army commanded by General Burgoyne. This battle was fought on the 19th of September, 1777, three miles above Stillwater, Colonel Morgan's regiment was detached to observe the motions of the enemy, and to harrass them as they advanced. They soon fell in with the pickets of the enemy in advance of their right wing, attacked them sharply and drove them in. A strong corps was immediately dispatched by the enemy against Morgan, who, after a brisk engagement was in turn compelled to give way. Another regiment being ordered to the assistance of Morgan, whose riflemen had been considerably cut up by the vigor of the attack, the battle was renewed about one o'clock and maintained with spirit, though with occasional pauses, for three hours; the commanders on both sides supporting and reinforcing their respective parties. By four o'clock the battle became general, nine Continental regiments and Morgan's corps having completely engaged the whole right wing of the enemy. The British had four field pieces. The ground occupied by the Americans, a thick wood on the borders of an open field did not admit of the use of artillery. On the opposite side of the field, on a rising ground, in a thin pine wood the British troops were drawn up. Whenever they advanced into the open field, the fire of the American marksmen drove them back in disorder; but when the Americans followed into the open ground, the British would rally, charge, and force them to fall back. The field
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was thus lost and won a dozen times in the course of the day. At every charge the British artillery fell into the possession of the Americans, but the ground would not allow them to carry off the pieces, nor could they be kept long enough to be turned on the enemy. " It was," said General Wilkinson, "one of the longest, warmest, and most obstinate battles fought in America," where the soldiers were often engaged hand to hand. The darkness of night terminated the battle on the spot where it began. The Americans withdrew to their camp, leaving the field in the possession of the British. They encamped upon it and claimed the victory; but, if not a drawn battle, it was one of those victories equivalent to a defeat. The British loss in the action was upward of five hundred; the American less than three hundred. The second battle in which Mr. Anderson participated was fought on the 7th of October, following, about six miles from Saratoga. The camps of the American and British armies were hardly cannon shot apart. General Burgoyne, to make a reconnoissance of the American lines, drew out fifteen hundred picked men and formed them less than a mile from the American camp. As soon as his position was discovered by the Americans, his left was furiously assailed by Poor's New Hampshire brigade. The attack extended rapidly to the right, where Morgan's riflemen maneuvered to cut off the British from their camp. To avoid being thus left unsupported, the British right was already retreating,
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when the left, pressed and overpowered by the Americans, began to give way. The gallant British general, Frazer, was mortally wounded, picked off by an American marksman. Six pieces of artillery were abandoned, and only by the greatest efforts did the British troops regain their camp. The Americans, following close upon them, and, through a shower of grape and musketry, assaulted the right of the British works. The Americans entered the intrenchments of a German brigade, and forced them from the ground at the point of the bayonet, capturing a part of the works with their camp equipage and artillery, and what was of still more importance and a great relief to the American army, an ample supply of ammunition. The repeated attempts of the British to dislodge them failed, and they remained at night in the possession of the works. Darkness at length put an end to the fighting; but the Americans slept on their arms, prepared to renew the conflict the next morning. The advantages the Americans had gained were decisive. The British had lost four hundred men in killed, wounded and prisoners: artillery, ammunition, and tents had been captured; and the possession of a part of the works by the Americans, would enable them to renew the attack the next day with every chance of success. During the night the British general, in silence and with order, drew back his discomfited troops to some high grounds in the rear, where next morning (October 8), they were drawn
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up in order of battle. That day was spent in skirmishes between the parties. To avoid being surrounded, General Burgoyne, the next day (October 9) abandoned his new position, and with the loss of his hospital stores, and numerous sick and wounded, fell back to Saratoga. The distance was only six miles; but the rain fell in torrents, the roads were almost impassable, the bridge over the Fishkill had been broken down by the Americans, and this retrograde movement occupied the entire day.
Isaac Anderson was also present at the surrender of the British army under General Burgoyne, at Saratoga; which took place October 16, 1777, when five thousand seven hundred and fifty-two British soldiers laid down their arms and surrendered to the American forces, commanded by General Gates; which, together with the men killed and lost in the previous battles and various disasters, made the whole British loss amount to nine thousand two hundred and thirteen. A considerable portion of these were Germans which the Duke of Brunswick and the Elector of Hesse-Cassel had sold or hired to the British Government. There also fell into the hands of the Americans thirty-five brass field pieces, five thousand muskets, and a large amount of ammunition, baggage and camp equipage.
In December, 1777, during the time the British occupied Philadelphia, and while the Congress held their sessions at Yorktown, the regiment to which Mr. An-
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derson belonged happened to be on a scouting expedition, when, on the tenth of the month, they fell in with a British regiment which was on a similar service, at a place then called Shorthill; a severe skirmish ensued, during which Mr. Anderson was severely wounded by a musket-ball, which passed in at one cheek and out at the opposite side, carrying away some of his teeth and part of the jawbone. The wound injured the sight of one of his eyes, and left a very deep scar on each cheek, which he carried through life. The American force was beaten and had to retreat, leaving Mr, Anderson on the field. The weather was cold, with some snow on the ground. It being supposed chat Anderson was dead, he had been stripped of part of his clothing by some of the English soldiers, and left lying on the frozen earth. However, after a time he revived, and when the English came the next morning to remove and bury the dead, he was found still alive. He was taken to Philadelphia and placed in the hospital under the care of a skillful English surgeon. On account of his wound he could take no solid food; soup and other liquids were his only nourishment, but he soon began to improve. Fortunately, they had some Rhenish wine, the acidity of which was very agreeable to his taste, and no doubt, contributed considerably to heal the wound. The assistant surgeon was an Irishman, from the same county in Ireland from which Mr. Anderson had come, who paid particular attention to him. In a few months
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he was almost wholly recovered. When the British evacuated Philadelphia, at three o'clock on the morning of the i8th of June, 1778, Mr. Anderson feigned himself extremely ill and was left behind in his berth in the hospital, by the connivance of his friend, the assistant surgeon. As soon as the British were entirely gone, he jumped from his berth and set out for the American camp, where he arrived the same evening, and in a few days joined his regiment.
The British after leaving Philadelphia retreated through New Jersey, followed by Genera! Washington and his army, who overtook them at Monmouth Courthouse, where a severe battle was fought on the 28th of June, 1778. Mr. Anderson often stated, that in this battle he discharged his rifle with aim thirty-two times. During the memorable contest for the occupancy of New Jersey, between the English and Continental troops, the regiment of which Mr. Anderson was a member, being a pioneer corps, was detailed on almost all occasions for very active and arduous service, and actually, as stated by Mr. Anderson, fought fourteen times in thirteen days, three of which were general battles. To those who are familiar with the history of the Revolutionary war, and the persons engaged in it, it must be well known what an important part the emigrants from Ireland performed in that war. Perhaps no nation furnishes a greater portion of brave men than Ireland.
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In the year 1781 we find Isaac Anderson in the western part of Pennsylvania. It appears that in the spring of that year, General George Rogers Clark contemplated making an excursion the ensuing summer against the Indians of the north-west in order to retaliate on them for depredations committed on the frontier settlements; and, with a view of raising men for the expedition, visited western Pennsylvania. He made a requisition on Colonel Archibald Laughery, who was county lieutenant of Westmoreland county, to raise one hundred or more volunteers to aid him in the expedition. It was General Clark's intention to have proceeded up the Great Miami river with his expedition, but subsequently changed his plan, and ordered Colonel Laughery to follow him to the falls of the Ohio. The men were raised and provided with an outfit and ammunition for the expedition, principally at the private expense of Colonel Laughery and Captain Robert Orr, an Irishman by birth, who was second in command. Isaac Anderson was a lieutenant in Captain Shannon's company.
The whole party, when assembled, numbered one hundred and seven mounted men. They rendezvoused at Carnahan's block-house, eleven miles west of Hannastown, and the next day set out for Fort Henry (Wheeling) by way of Pittsburg, where it was arranged they should Join the army under General Clark. When they arrived at Wheeling, Clark had gone twelve miles 26
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down the river, leaving some provisions and a traveling boat for them, with directions to follow him. After preparing some temporary boats for the transportation of the men and horses, which occupied several days, they embarked and proceeded down the river. Arriving at the place where he halted, they found he had continued down the river the day before, leaving Major Creacroft with a few men and a boat for the transportation of the horses, but without either provisions or ammunition, of which they had an inadequate supply. General Clark had, however, promised to wait their arrival at the mouth of the Kanawha river; but on reaching that point they found that he had been obliged, in order to prevent desertion among his men, to proceed on, leaving only a letter affixed to a pole directing them to follow him to the falls of the Ohio.
Their provisions and forage were nearly exhausted; there was no source of supply but the stores conveyed by General Clark; the river was low, they were unacquainted with the channel, and could not, therefore, hope to overtake him. Under these embarrassing circumstances, Colonel Laughery dispatched Captain Shannon with seven men, in a small boat, with the hope of overtaking Clark and the main army, and of securing supplies. Lieutenant Isaac Anderson took command of the company. Before Captain Shannon and his men had proceeded far, they were all taken prisoners by the Indians, and with them was taken a letter to General
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Clark detailing the situation of Colonel Laughery's party. About the same time Laughery arrested a party of nineteen deserters from Clark's army, whom he afterward released, and it was said that they immediately joined the Indians.
The Indians had been apprised of the expedition, but had previously supposed that Clark and Laughery were proceeding together, and through fear of the cannon which it was known Clark carried, were intimidated from making an attack. Apprised now by the capture of Shannon and his men, and by the reports of the deserters, of the weakness of Laughery's party, they collected in great force below the mouth of the Great Miami river, with a determination to destroy them. The Indians placed their prisoners in a conspicuous position on the north shore of the Ohio river, nearly opposite, as it was said, to the head of what has since been called Laughery's island, which is three miles below the mouth of Laughery's creek, and promised to Spare their lives on condition that they would hail their companions as they passed, and induce them to land and surrender.
Colonel Laughery and his party pursuing their voyage were, however, wearied with their slow progress, and despairing of overtaking General Clark's army, they landed, about ten o'clock on the morning of the 24th of August, at a very attractive spot in the mouth of a creek on the north shore, about ten miles below the
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mouth of the Great Miami river, in what is now the south-eastern part of the State of Indiana. (This creek has since been named " Laughery's creek," in memory of the commander of the expedition.) The Indians, who were waiting opposite the island below to intercept them, were soon informed of their position by their runners. Here Colonel Laughery's party removed their horses ashore, and turned them loose to feed while some of the men cut grass sufficient to keep them alive until they could be taken to the falls, some one hundred and twenty-miles distant. One of the party had killed a buffalo, and all, except a few set to cut grass and guard the horses, were engaged round the fires which they had kindled preparing a meal from it. Suddenly they were assailed by a volley of rifle balls from the adjoining woods, and the Indians immediately appeared in great force. The men, thus surprised, seized their arms and defended themselves as long as their ammunition lasted, and then attempted to escape by means of their boats. But the boats were unwieldy, the water was low, and their force too much weakened to make them available, and when they were putting out, intending to cross the river, they were intercepted by another band of Indians, who fired on them from canoes in the river. Thus, unable to escape or defend themselves, they were compelled to surrender. The whole detachment were either killed or taken prisoners. Not one escaped, either to join General Clark or return home. Colonel Laughery
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and a number more were killed after they were taken prisoners. Captain Orr, who commanded a company, had his arm broken by a ball, and was taken prisoner. The wounded who were unable to travel were immediately dispatched with the tomahawk and scalped. The few who escaped with their lives (among them Isaac Anderson) were driven through the wilderness to Detroit. The fate of Colonel Laughery and his party was not known to their relatives and friends for several months afterward. In a letter from General William Irvine to General Washington, dated " Fort Pitt, December 29, 1781," an account of the disaster is communicated, and he adds: "These misfortunes throw the people of this country into the greatest consternation, and almost despair, particularly Westmoreland county, Laughery's party being all the best men of their frontier." In a letter written by Michael Huffnagle to General William Irvine, dated " Hannastown, July 17, 1782," he says: " I have this moment heard that Isaac Anderson and Richard Wallace, that were with Laughery, made their escape from Montreal, and have arrived safe in this neighborhood."
Mr. Anderson kept a daily journal from the time he set out on the expedition until his return, which is preserved in the family, and which has been submitted to my inspection by his son, Judge Fergus Anderson, of Ross, Butler county, Ohio. It is here inserted entire as a curious document of the olden times, long bygone.
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It embodies an amount of information, of which it is, probably, the only authentic record, and will be found both interesting and useful on account of dates and names :
August 1st, 1781. We met at Colonel Carnahan's, in order to form a body of men to join General Clark on the expedition against the Indians.
Aug. 2d. Rendezvoused at said place.
Aug. 3d. Marched under command of Colonel Lochry to Maracle's mill, about 83 in number.
Aug. 4th. Crossed Youghagania river.
Aug. 5th. Marched to Devor's ferry.
Aug. 6th. To Racoon settlement.
Aug. 7th. Captain Mason's.
Aug. 8th. To Wheeling Fort, and found Clark was started down the river about twelve hours.
Aug. 9th. Col. Lochry sent a Quartermaster and officer of the horse after him, which overtook him at Middle Island and returned; then started with all our foot troops on seven boats, and our horses by land, to Grave creek.
Aug. 13th. Moved down to Fishing creek; we took up Lieut. Baker and 16 men, deserting from Gen. Clark, and went that day to the middle of Long Reach, where we stayed that night.
Aug. 15th. To the Three Islands, where we found Major Creacraft waiting on us with a horse-boat. He, with his guard, 6 men, started that night after General Clark.
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Aug. 16th. Colonel Lochry detached Capt. Shannon with 7 men and letter alter Gen. Clark, and we moved thai day to the Little Connaway(Kanawha) with all our horses on board the boats.
Aug. 17th. Two men went out to hunt who never returned to us. We moved that day to Buffalo Island.
Aug. 18th. To Catfish Island.
Aug. 19th. To Bare Banks.
Aug. 20th. We met with two of Shannon's men, who told us they had put to shore to cook, below the mouth of the Siotha (Sciota), where Shannon sent them and a sergeant out to hunt. When they had got about half a mile in. the woods they heard a number of guns fire, which they supposed to be Indians firing on the rest of the party, and they immediately took up the river to meet us; but, unfortunately, the sergeant's knife dropped on the ground, and it ran directly through his foot, and he died of the wound in a few minutes. We sailed all that night,
Aug. 21st. We moved to the Two Islands.
Aug. 22d. To the Sassafras Bottom.
Aug. 23d. Went all day and all night.
Aug. 24th. Col. Lochry ordered the boats to land on the Indian shore, about 10 miles below the mouth of the Great Meyamee (Miami) river, to cook provisions and cut grass for the horses, when we were fired on by a party of Indians from the bank. We took to our boats, expecting to cross the river, and was fired on by another party in a number of canoes, and soon we became a prey to them. They killed the Col. and a number more after they were prisoners. The number of our killed was about forty. They marched us that night about eight miles up the river and encamped.
Aug. 25th. We marched eight miles up the Meyamee river and encamped.
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Aug. 26th. Lay in camp.
Aug. 27th. The party that took us was joined by one hundred white men, under the command of Capt. Thompson, and three hundred Indians under the command of Captain McKee.
Aug. 28th. The whole of the Indians and whites went down against the settlements of Kentucky, excepting a sergeant and eighteen men, which were left to take care of sixteen prisoners and the stores that were left there. We lay there until the fifteenth of Sept.
Sept. 15th, 1781. We started toward the Shawna towns on our way to Detroit,
Sept. 19th, Arrived at Chillecothey, where the Indians took all the prisoners from Capt. Thompson excepting six of us. We lay there until the 26th.
Sept. 26th We marched to Laremes.
Sept. 27th. Over the carrying place to the Glaize.
Sept 28th. To the Taway village.
Sept. 29th. Continued our march.
Sept 30th. Marched all day through swampy ground.
Oct. 1st. Arrived at Roche de Bout and rested there eight days
Oct. 4th. Capt. Thompson marched for Detroit, and left us with the Mohawks, where we lay until the eighth.
Oct. 8th. Started in a canoe with the Indians for Detroit, and lay at the foot of the rapids all night.
Oct. 9th. Got to Stony Point, half way to Detroit, from the mouth of Mame (Maumee) river.
Oct. l0th. Got to the spring well, four miles from Detroit.
Oct. 11th. Taken into Detroit and given up to Major Arent Schuyler DePeyster, who confined us to the citadel.
Oct, 13th. Got into good quarters and were well used, and
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clothing and liberty going where we pleased round the town until the fourth of November.
Nov. 4th. Went on board the sloop Felicity, bound for Niagara.
Nov. 5th. Lay at anchor in Put-in Bay.
Nov. 6th. Likewise
Nov. 7th. Set sail with fair wind.
Nov. 8th. Wind ahead.
Nov. 9th. Sprung the mast by distress of weather.
Nov. l0th. Very stormy weather; lower our sails.
Nov. 11th. Put in at Presque Isle Bay.
Nov. 12th. Lay in said harbour.
Nov. 13th. Sailed to Fort Erie.
Nov. 14th. Went in batteaux to Fort Schlosser, one mile above Niagara Falls.
Nov. 15th. Went over the carrying place to Niagara Fort, and put on board the Seneca.
Nov. 16th. Set sail for Carleton Island.
Nov. 17th. Wind ahead and blew very hard.
Nov. 18th. Arrived at said place.
Nov. 19th. Put in the guard-house said place.
Nov. 20th. Started in batteaux for Montreal.
Nov. 21 St. Continued on our journey.
Nov. 22d. Lay at Oswegatchie.
Nov. 23d. Crossed the Long Saut.
Nov. 24th. Arrived at Coteau du Lac.
Nov. 25th. Crossed the Cascades to the Isle of Perrot.
Nov. 26th. Was beat by a wind upon Chateaugay Island.
Nov. 27th. Crossed Chateaugay river, and went to Caughnawaga an Indian village, and crossed the river St. Lawrence with much difficulty and lay at La Chine all night.
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Nov. 28th, Drew provisions, and were insulted by drunken Indians; went down to Montreal, and were delivered to General Spike, who put us in close confinement.
Nov. 29th. Removed to the long house in St. Marc parish, and remained there until May 26th, 1782.
May 26th, 1782. Scaled the pickets about two o'clock in the day time and crossed the river at Longueiul church, and got into the woods immediately, and steered for Sorel river; crossed it that night, and went into a Frenchman's barn and killed two lambs, and took two horses and rode all night till daybreak; then we made a halt, skinned and barbacued the lambs.
May 27th. Started with our horses; got them about five miles, where we were obliged to turn them out of hand upon account of swampy ground, and steered an east course all day, and came to the river Missisque; crossed it on a raft; marched about two miles after dark and encamped.
May 28th. Marched about daybreak. Had gone but one mile when we heard the drums beat the reveille from a blockhouse on said river. We steered that day south-east, expecting to strike Heason's road, but found it not. We encamped that night on a very high mountain.
May 29th. Found a large quantity of snow on said mountain. Crossed the river Missisque and another mountain that day and encamped.
May 30th. Crossed three mountains and camped.
May 31st. Came to a level country and crossed four creeks, one very difficult to cross, that emptied into Lake Memphremagog.
We were obliged to camp on bad ground that night, and our provisions were done.
June 1st. Our provisions being done, we were obliged to kill our dog and eat him; lost our compass, but Providence
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favored us with clear weather that day and part of the next. We steered our old course, south-east, and encamped.
June 2d. Struck a branch of Passumpsic river and kept down it, and in the evening made a raft, expecting to go by water, but was disappointed by drift-wood. We encamped in the forks of said river all night.
June 3d. Kept our old course and struck an east branch of said river. We kept down it by reason of dark weather. We encamped that night on dead running water.
June 4th. Made two rafts and never got any service of them, by reason of rapid running water, and kept our old course that day and encamped.
June 5th. Made two more rafts, and got no service of them, by reason of falls. We continued down said river a south course. Our provisions and moccasins were done. We roasted some toads for supper that night and almost poisoned ourselves; cut one pair of our leggings to make more moccasins, where we encamped.
June 6th. Continued our march, and struck the settlement of Cohorse on said river, that evening, at one Smith's. We came down the Connecticut that night and crossed below the forks, where we stayed all night.
June 7th. Came past Ebr. Willoughby, and to Richard Salmon's, where we stayed all night, 12 miles from where we struck the settlement.
June 8th. Came to Brig. Gen. Bayley's, and rested there two days.
June l0th. Crossed the river to his son's, Ephraim Bayley's, where we got a pair of shoes, and went to James Woodward's, Esquire, where we stayed all night.
June 11th. To Capt. Ladd's, 21 miles.
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June 12th. To Col. Johnston's, two miles.
June 13th. To Capt. Clements, on our way to Pennycuik,11 miles.
June 14th. To Emerson's, Esq., 21 miles.
June 15th. To Captain Favour's, 19 miles.
June 16th. To Colonel Garishe's, 14 miles.
June 17th. To Colonel Walker's, in Pennycuik, 12 miles, where the general court sat. There we made application for money, and the next day got a little.
June l8th. Went to Capt. Todd's, 11 miles.
June 19th. To Captain Walker's, where we eat dinner; and left the Merimac river, and got on the great road for Fishkills, to headquarters, and stayed that night at the sign of the Lion, 30 miles.
June 20th. To Mr. Holton's, 4 miles from Lancaster, in the Bay State, 25 miles.
June 21 St. To Worcester, and from thence to Mr. Sargeant's, where we stayed 3 nights, and got two pair of trowsers made.
June 24th. To Benj. Cottens, 35 miles.
June 25th. To Springfield, and crossed Connecticut river and came to Mr. Eanese's, in Connecticut province, 32 miles.
June 26th. To Mr. Camp's, in Washington town, 40 miles,
June 27th. Came past Bull's works, and into York province, to Thos. Storms', Esq., where we lay all night.
June 28th. Came to Fishkill's landing, 15 miles, and crossed the North river to Newburg, to head-quarters, expecting to get a supply of money; but His Excellency was gone up the river to Albany, and we could not obtain any. From thence to New Windsor, 2 miles, where we met with a friend, but no acquaintance, who lent us money to carry us to Philadelphia, which was
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a great favor. We came that night to John Brouster's, 11 miles.
June 29th. To Mr, Snyder's tavern, Jersey province, 32 miles.
June 30th. Came through Hackettstown, and came to Mr. Haslet's, 27 miles.
July 1st. Through Philipsburgh,and from thence we crossed the Delaware river at Howell's ferry, and got into Pennsylvania, to William Bennet's in Buck's county, 43 miles, and 27 from Philadelphia.
July 2d. Came to Philadelphia, 27 miles, and stayed there until the 4th.
July 4th. Started for Carlisle about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and came to the Sorrel House, 13 miles.
July 5th. To Capt. Mason's, 42 miles.
July 6th. Came through Lancaster, and from thence to Middletown, where we lay all night; 37 miles.
July 7th. Crossed Susquehanna river and came to Carlisle about 1 o'clock, 26 miles, and rested three nights.
July 10th. Started and came through Shippensburg to Capt. Thos. Campbell's, 39 miles.
July 11h. Rested at said Campbell's.
July 12th. To Mr. Welch's, about 5 miles.
July 13th. To crossing Juniata, 28 miles.
July 14th. Came through Bedford to Arthur McGaughey's, 21 miles.
July 15th. To Loud's, in the glades, 32 miles,
July 16th. To Col. Campbell's, 28 miles.
Return of the men killed and taken August 24th, 1781, upon
the Ohio river, under the command of Col. Lochery:
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Killed — Col. Lochery, Capt. Campbell, Ensigns Ralph, Maxwell and Cahel.
Taken prisoners— Maj. Creacraft, Adjt. Guthree, Quar Master Wallace, Capts. Tho. Stokely, Samuel Shannon and Robert Orr; Lieuts. Isaac Anderson, Jos. Robinson, Samuel Craig, Jno. Scott and Milr Baker; Ensign Hunter.
Privates killed and taken prisoners in Captain Stokely's company :
Killed — Hugh Gallagher, Isaac Patton, Douglass, Pheasant, Young, Gibson, Smith, Stratton, Bailey and John Burns.
Prisoners— John Trimble, William Mars, John Seace, Michael Miller, Robert Wattson, John Allenton, Richard Fleman, James , Cain, Patrick Murphy, Abraham Anderson, Michael Haire,
Captain Campbell's company:
Prisoners — William Husk, Robert Wilson, James Dunseth William Weatherington, Keany Quigley, Ezekiel Lewis.
Killed — William Allison, James McRight and Jonathan McKinley.
Captain Orr's company:
Killed — John Forsyth, William Cain, Adam Erwin, Peter Maclin, Archibald Erskin, Jno. Black, Jno. Stewart, Jos. Crawford.
Prisoners — Adam Owry, Samuel Lefaver, Jno. Hunter, Jos. Erwin, Mans Kite, Hugh Steer and Hugh Moore.
Captain Shannon's company:
Killed — Ebenezer Burns, killed by accident.
Prisoners — Solomon Aikens, John Lever, Josias Fisher, George Hill, John Porter and John Smith.
Lieut. Baker's company :
Killed — D’Allinger, George Butcher, John Rowe, Peter Barickman, Jonas Peters and Josias Brooks.
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Prisoners — John Catt, Vol. Lawrence, Jacob Lawrence, Christr. Tait, Charles Maclin, William Rourk. Wnd. Franks, Abm, Righley and George Mason.
Lieut. Anderson's company:
Killed — Samuel Evans, Sergt. Zeans Harden, Matthew Lamb, John Milegan, John Corn.
Prisoners — Norman McLeod, Sergt. James McFerron, William Marshall, Denis McCarty, Peter Coneley and John Ferrel.
Taken prisoners in Maj. Creacraft's company:
Thomas James, Thomas Adkson, John Stakehouse, William Clarke, Elihu Riseiy, Alexander Burns,
48 privates and 12 officers taken; 5 officers and 36 privates killed.
The prisoners taken at Laughery's defeat remained in captivity until the next year, which brought the revolutionary struggle to a close. After the preliminary articles of peace were signed, on the 30th of November, 1782, they were ransomed by the British officers in command of the northern posts, to be exchanged for British prisoners, and sent to the St. Lawrence. Isaac Anderson and a few others had, as recorded in the journal, previously made their escape from Montreal. The remainder, in the spring of 1783, sailed from Quebec to New York, and returned thence home by the way of Philadelphia, having been absent twenty-two months. More than one-half of the number who left Pennsylvania under Colonel Laughery never returned.
After Mr. Anderson's return from captivity with the
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Indians he settled in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, and soon after received the commission of a captain in the Pennsylvania line. He was also appointed commissary for several forts, or block-houses, on the western frontier of the State. This was both a laborious and hazardous business, which he pursued for three years, issuing rations at seven different stations, situated from four to ten miles apart, which required daily rides through forests infested with hostile savages. These rides, for safety, were frequently made in the night, and alone.
In November, 1788, Isaac Anderson was married, in Westmoreland county, to Euphemia Moorehead, eldest daughter of Fergus Moorehead, who had, also, been a soldier of the revolution. About the year 1771 or 1772, Fergus Moorehead and James Kelly moved to the western part of Pennsylvania, and commenced improvements near where the town of Indiana now stands. The country around might well be termed a howling wilderness, for it was full of wolves. As soon as these adventurers had erected their cabins, they worked together during the day, and at night each betook himself to his own cabin. One morning Mr. Moorehead paid a visit to his neighbor Kelly, and was surprised to find near his cabin traces of blood and tufts of human hair. Kelly was not to be found. Moorehead believed him to have been killed by the wolves, and was cautiously looking out for his remains, when he discovered him
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sitting by a spring washing the blood from his hair. He had lain down in his cabin at night and fallen asleep. A wolf reached through a crack between the logs and seized him by the head. This was repeated twice or thrice before he was sufficiently awakened to change his position. The smallness of the crack and the size of his head prevented the wolf from grasping it so far as to have a secure hold, and that saved his life. Some time after this the two adventurers went to Franklin county for their families, and on their return they were joined by others.
The privations of such a situation, and the difficulty of procuring breadstuff and other necessaries of life, were very great, as there was no possibility of a supply short of Conecocheague, east of the mountains. But, great as these difficulties were, they had to encounter others of a still more serious nature. The savage and hostile Indians gave them much trouble. Several of the inhabitants were killed and scalped; others were forced to leave their homes and seek a place of safety on the eastern side of the mountains, Moorehead and Kelly had many narrow escapes from the Indians; but they finally caught Moorehead, together with a settler by the name of Simpson. Simpson was killed and Moorehead taken prisoner, and carried through the woods to Quebec, where he was confined eleven months. He was afterward exchanged and sent to New York, and thence made his way to his family, whom he joined
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after twelve months' separation. After his capture his wife and three children had fled to a place of safety in a fort in Westmoreland county, and thence to Franklin county.
Mr. Fergus Moorehead was the father of Joseph Moorehead, who received an ensign's commission and marched to the west with the army under General St. Clair. He was at the disastrous battle of the 4th of November, 1791, at Fort Recovery, where General St. Clair and his army were defeated by the Indians. Here he received a wound which rendered him an invalid for life.
When the army was recruiting, in the spring of the I year 1791, to march against the north-western Indians, under the command of General St. Clair, Isaac Anderson was offered the command of a company of infantry in that expedition; but he declined the appointment, and recommended his brother-in-law, Joseph Moorehead, who received the commission of an ensign. The reason why Mr. Anderson declined accepting the commission of captain tendered to him was, that he had I undertaken, and was engaged at the time, in an extensive I contract for surveying lands for the "Holland Land Company," in western Pennsylvania. This company had purchased an immense tract of land west of the Genesee river, in New York, and also owned a vast body of land in western Pennsylvania.
In the winter of the year 1795-6, Isaac Anderson,
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with his family, emigrated to the west, and settled in Cincinnati, then a small village of log cabins, including about fifty rough, unfinished frame houses, with stone chimneys. Fort Washington stood in the upper part of the town, east of where Broadway now is. There were no brick houses there then. Indeed, a brick had not been seen in the place, where now so many elegant edifices present themselves to the eye. He purchased a lot in the town from Joseph Moorehead, who had previously bought it when he was with St, Clair's army. The lot was situatedI,on the north side of Front street, between Main and Walnut streets, one lot east of the corner of Front and Walnut. There was a log cabin on it at the time, in which he domiciled his family. By persevering industry Mr. Anderson afterward built a comfortable house on the premises, in which he opened a store and kept a tavern, which some of the old citizens may remember, as the sign of the Green Tree. Being of an enterprising turn, he also, while living in Cincinnati, engaged in various other business, such as manufacturing brick, and employing teams to transport emigrants, goods and provisions into the interior of the country.
In the year 1801 the United States lands west of the Great Miami river were first offered for sale.* Mr. Anderson remembered the beautiful, rich bottoms of
* The first sale of public lands was held in Cincinnati on the first Monday of April, 1801. Laws of the United States, vol. III. page 386
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the Miami river, which he had traversed when a captive with the Indians, on their way to Detroit, and resolved to possess himself of a portion of that fertile soil. Accordingly he purchased a section of land on the west bank of the Great Miami river, above the mouth of Indian creek, in Butler county, on which he commenced a clearing; and in the year 1812 removed from Cincinnati with his family, and settled on his farm, where he resided until the time of his death.
Isaac Anderson died at his residence in Butler county on the 18th of December, 1839, aged eighty-one years and nine months. His wife, Euphemia, with whom he had lived in great harmony for upward of half a century, survived him. She died at the old homestead on Indian creek August 26th, 1851, aged eighty years and eleven months, and was buried beside her husband in the burying-ground at Venice, Butler county, Ohio.
The only trophy of the revolution which Mr, Anderson preserved was a law book entitled "Lovelass on Wills," and on a fly-leaf of which is written, in Mr. Anderson's own well known handwriting, " Isaac Anderson got this book at Burgoyne's defeat, 1777." Mr. Anderson frequently related the circumstance of his picking up the book on the battle-ground near Saratoga after the engagement, and facetiously observed that the I British might need such a manual, as some of them had but short notice to draw their wills, and it was necessary they should be in due form.
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Isaac Anderson and Euphemia, his wife, had born to them eleven children, six sons and five daughters. The four eldest were born in Pennsylvania, the last seven in Ohio; six in Cincinnati, and one at the old farm in Butler county. They, all but one, who died in infancy, grew up to maturity and became the heads of families. The descendants of the old patriot are now numerous, and nearly all reside in Ohio. The names of the children are Robert, Jane, Susan, Margaret, Fergus, Isaac, Euphemia (died in infancy), Joseph, William, James and Euphemia (the second).
Robert Anderson, the oldest son, was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, on the 14th of September, 1789. He married Rachel Bunnel on the i6th of June, i8ii,and settled on a farm adjoining his father's, The war with Great Britain having been declared on the 18th of June, 1812, the ensuing spring Robert Anderson received a commission as lieutenant in the American army,* and after attending for some time to the recruiting service, he joined the army under the command of General Harrison at Sandusky. The small American fleet, under the command of Commodore Perry, was then anchored off the mouth of Sandusky river. There were at this time not more than half sailors enough to man the fleet. However, a number of Pennsylvania militia volunteered their services, and General Harrison furnished about seventy
* He was in the pack-horse and commissary service from the beginning of the war.
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volunteers, principally Kentuckians, to serve as marines on board the fleet, Lieutenant Anderson volunteered his services, and acted as an officer of marines during the action.
Lieutenant Anderson received a silver medal, by order of congress, as a testimonial of his bravery and I good conduct on the occasion. After Perry's victory on the lake, Lieutenant Anderson was ordered to join the northern army, under the command of General Brown, in which he served until the conclusion of the war. In the year 1816, after peace had been proclaimed, Mr. Anderson retired from the army and returned to his farm in Butler county. His wife having died, he married for his second wife, Clarissa Miller, on the 16th of September, 1816. In the early part of the year 1817, he was elected a justice of the peace for Ross township, Butler county, in which office he served three years. And in the fall of the same year he was elected a member of the general assembly from the county of Butler, and was successively elected the four following years, and served five sessions in the legislature of the State, with honor to himself and to the entire satisfaction of his constituents. He declined being a candidate for re-election the succeeding year (1822). In the year 1823, he was elected by the legislature an associate judge of the court of common pleas for Butler county, in which capacity he served until September, 1827. In 1827, the board of canal commis-
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sioners appointed him an engineer of the Miami canal, then in the course of construction, to the duties of which appointment he gave his faithful attention during the remainder of his life. In March, 1828, when engaged in locating and laying out the Hamilton basin, he was attacked with bilious fever, and was compelled to discontinue his labors. He went to his home, from which he never returned. He died on the 19th of June, 1828, leaving his widow and two sons surviving him. His widow is since deceased.
Jane, the eldest daughter of Isaac Anderson, was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, on the 5th of August, 1791, and on the 30th of April, 1812, intermarried with George Dick, a son of an old pioneer of the country, who owned large possessions on Indian creek. He was the brother of her who afterward became the wife of Fergus Anderson. George Dick owned a flouring mill on the Great Miami river, below the mouth of Indian creek, a short distance above where the town of Venice now is. A post office was established at that place called " Dick's mill post office," of which he was appointed postmaster. He died on the 2d of September, 1828, leaving his widow and seven children, who all grew up to maturity and are respectably settled in the neighborhood. After the death of Mr. Dick, the post office department appointed his widow to discharge the duties, to which she attended with promptness and fidelity until July, in the year
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1834, when the office was removed to the town of Venice, then recently laid out, and the name changed to Ross post office. The widow of George Dick again intermarried on the 17th of April, 1834, with Judge Nehemiah Wade, a gentleman residing in the vicinity. He was the son of David E. Wade, one of the first settlers of Cincinnati, who died several years ago, possessed of vast wealth, in addition to about two thousand acres of land which he held at the mouth of Indian creek. Nehemiah Wade was elected a justice of the peace for Ross township in 1818, in which office he served six years. In 1841 he was elected by the legislature, an associate judge of the court of common pleas for Butler county, and again re-elected at the session of 1847-48, and held the office until the organization of the courts under the new constitution, a term of eleven years. In addition to these offices, Mr. Wade has held various other important trusts and posts of usefulness to the citizens of his neighborhood. He and his wife yet live in the vicinity of Venice, Butler county.
Margaret Anderson, the third daughter, was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, on the 17th of January, 1795, and on the 29th of July, 1817, was married to William Moore, a carpenter and joiner by trade, and a perfect master of his profession. They settled in Hamilton, where he pursued his trade for several years, and where many houses built by him remain as monuments of his industry and skill in his
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profession. A few years before the close of his life, he was associated with William Anderson as a partner in a heavy contract for building locks at Lockport on the Miami extension canal. Mr. Moore died at Hamilton on the 2d of January, 1835, He was an upright and very worthy man. His widow yet lives near Venice in Butler county.
Fergus Anderson, the second oldest son, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 14th of June, 1797, and on the 28th of June, 1821, was married to Miss Mary Dick, a daughter of Samuel Dick, an old associate pioneer of Isaac Anderson; they had been near neighbors from the time of their first settling in Cincinnati, and had purchased and settled on land on Indian creek in the vicinity of each other, and were still neighbors. Fergus Anderson was brought up to the business of farming; and after he was married, settled on a farm on Indian creek, near the residence of his father. In the fall of the year 1828, he was elected a member of the general assembly from Butler county. He was also elected the succeeding year and served two years in the lower house, after which in 1830, he was elected to the senate and served two years. In 1835, he was elected a justice of the peace for Ross township, in which office he served until he was elected by the legislature an associate judge of the court of common pleas for Butler county, in which office he served seven years. Since his retirement from the bench and public life he has lived
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on his farm, the first on which he settled, where he and his lady and a number of children are yet living in very comfortable circumstances.
Susan Anderson, the second daughter, was born in Westmoreland county, State of Pennsylvania, on the 10th of June, 1793, and on the 18th of August, 1814 was married to James Boal, a hatter by trade, who opened a shop and carried on his business in Hamilton.
Between ten and eleven o'clock, A. M., on the 5th of April, 1826, a severe thunderstorm occurred. Mr; Boal and the family were sitting in their room near the fire-place, when the lightning struck the chimney of the building, and the electric fluid descended into the room and instantly killed Mrs. Boal, two of her children, and a Mr. Perrine, who was also in the room. Thus were four persons instantly deprived of life. The children killed were respectively three and five years of age. The house in which the catastrophe occurred was a brick building, the second brick house that had been erected in Hamilton. The distressing circumstance caused a deep gloom to pervade the town, which was long remembered. There were four other persons in the room at the time, three others of Mrs. Boal's children and a daughter of William McCarron, who providentially escaped with but slight injury. James Boal died near Reading, Hamilton county, Ohio, of cholera, in the year 1833.
Isaac Anderson, junior, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio,
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on the 29th of August, 1799, and was married to Margaret Morris on the 2nd of August, 1825. He lives on a farm in the west part of Ross township, Butler county, and has served several years in the office of justice of the peace.
A daughter, Euphemia Anderson, was born in Cincinnati, on the 18th of April, 1802, and died 30th June, 1803.
Joseph Anderson was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the l0th of July, 1804, and was married to Jane Gilchrist on the 9th of December, 1829. He was educated for the profession of a merchant, which business he yet pursues in the town of Lebanon, Warren county, Ohio, where he resides.
William Anderson was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 26th of September, 1808, and on the 26th of March, 1833, was married to Miss Hannah Millikin, a daughter of Samuel Millikin, who was a brother of Dr. Daniel Millikin, one of the first physicians of Hamilton. She died soon afterward, he married, for his second wife, Miss Mary Jackson, on the 30th of October, 1838. William Anderson became a partner in a very heavy contract on the northern part of the Miami canal, then in the course of construction; and personally superintended the building of the range of eight locks, between the Miami feeder and Lockport, and the aqueduct across Loramie's creek, in Shelby county. After completing this contract to the entire satisfaction of the commis-
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sioners of the board of public works, he located himself in Rossville, Butler county, and opened a store of dry goods, to which business he attended till the time of his death, which took place on the 5th of August, 1845. He was an energetic, persevering man, well qualified to perform the business which he engaged in. He was much beloved and esteemed by all who knew him.
James Anderson, the youngest son, was born in Cincinnati, on the 12th of December, 1810, and on the 14th of October, 1841, was married to Hannah Margaret Taylor. He inherited the old homestead and farm on Indian creek, Butler county, where he is still living.
The youngest child was a daughter, named Euphemia Anderson (the second). She was born in Ross township, Butler county, December 18, 1813, and was married to J. Parks Gilchrist, on the 12th of April, 1837.